But clinical trials are expensive and risky. The later-stage trials, which can involve hundreds or thousands of participants, are often outside the means of small pharmaceutical start-ups. To fund their development and testing, and without backing from big pharma, some small companies are receiving grants from large public health organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (in 2016 the organization doled out $600,000 for development of male contraceptives, according to MIT Tech Review ) and the World Health Organization, which has funded several trials for hormonal interventions over the past few decades. Others partner with nonprofits to develop their drugs — the Parsemus Foundation, a nonprofit investigating a number of different drugs, is backing the trials for Vasalgel.
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