Calcineurin inhibitors are prescribed for adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a single drug or in combination with methotrexate. The microemulsion formulation is approved by the . Food and Drug Administration for treatment of severely active RA. It is also prescribed for: psoriatic arthritis , psoriasis , acute ocular Behçet’s disease , juvenile idiopathic arthritis , adult and juvenile polymyositis and dermatomyositis , adult and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus , adult lupus membranous nephritis , systemic sclerosis , aplastic anemia , steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome , atopic dermatitis , severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma , severe ulcerative colitis , pemphigus vulgaris , myasthenia gravis , and dry eye disease , with or without Sjögren's syndrome (administered as ophthalmic emulsion). [4]

the study population included 35 SAA patients treated during a minimum period of one year with oral corticosteroids (OC) equivalent to a mean daily dose of 4 mg of methyl-prednisolone. To qualify for the protocol, the patients had to have received treatment with OMA ≥ one year and a half, OC dose had to have reached the lowest tolerated dose and spirometry had to be ≥ at entry. Intervention: a) OMA dose was reduced by half; b) if patients were clinically stable after 6 months, the dose was halved again; c) if repeated OC boosters were needed and/or spirometry worsened ≥ 10%, OMA dose was raised to the previous figure until stabilization.

The European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) has published the revised Porto criteria for the diagnosis of IBD in children and adolescents [ 34 ]. The revised criteria are based on the original Porto criteria and the Paris classification of pediatric IBD, incorporating novel data such as serum and fecal biomarkers. The criteria recommend upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ileocolonoscopy in all suspected cases of pediatric IBD, with magnetic resonance enterography or wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine. Imaging is not necessary if typical UC is diagnosed using endoscopy and histology.