Protein S can bind to negatively charged phospholipids via the carboxylated Gla domain. This property allows Protein S to function in the removal of cells which are undergoing apoptosis . Apoptosis is a form of cell death that is used by the body to remove unwanted or damaged cells from tissues. Cells, which are apoptotic (. in the process of apoptosis ), no longer actively manage the distribution of phospholipids in their outer membrane and hence begin to display negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidyl serine, on the cell surface. In healthy cells, an ATP ( Adenosine triphosphate )-dependent enzyme removes these from the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. These negatively charged phospholipids are recognized by phagocytes such as macrophages . Protein S can bind to the negatively charged phospholipids and function as a bridging molecule between the apoptotic cell and the phagocyte. The bridging property of Protein S enhances the phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell, allowing it to be removed 'cleanly' without any symptoms of tissue damage such as inflammation occurring.
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Binding Capacity Per Column
Up to 50 μg RNA
Maximum Loading Volume Per Spin Column
Size of RNA Purified
All sizes, including < 200 nt
Time to Complete 10 Purifications
Maximum Amount of Starting Material
Liver (10 mg)
Kidney (10 mg)
Brain (10 mg)
Blood (hamster, 100µL
HeLa (1 x 10 6 )
CHO (1 x 10 6 )
Yeast (1 x 10 8 )
E. coli (1 x 10 9 )
Storage Conditions and Product Stability
All solutions should be kept tightly sealed and stored at room temperature. These reagents should remain stable for at least 1 year in their unopened containers.